The Green Dome

The Mamluk sultans to whom Qa’itbay belonged were followed by the Ottomans who took control of the Arabian Peninsula, especially the Hijaz with its two holy cities of Makkah and al-Madinah. Their domain extended to Palestine, then a province of al-Sham (Syria) encompassing present-day Lebanon and Jordan. The Ottomans administered the Hijaz through their governors (the sharifs) from 1517 until the end of the Fist World War (1918), when the Ottoman Empire disintegrated and British puppets took control of the region effectively falling into the hands of the British.

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Hashemite rule

In 1334H (1915CE) Shareef Hussain b. Ali declared war on the Turks. This followed the creation of “Al-Ittihad wa al-Taraqqi” society (Union and Progress) whose aim was to liberate the Arab lands.

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The Siege of Madinah

A significant event in the history of Madinah was the siege of the city for two years during the Arab Revolt (1337-1337 H/ 1917-1918).

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Hijaz Railway

The Turks built the Hijaz Railway line that extended from Damascus to Madinah. Completed (at a huge cost) in the year 1326 H (1908 CE),

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